Introduction: What is Oceania Art?
Oceania is widely regarded as one of the most diverse regions on earth, with over 20,000 Pacific islands and around 1,800 cultures and languages.
Oceania art is a category of art that, according to Encyclopaedia Britannica, “is the body of artistic and religious work created by the inhabitants of Oceania or their descendants”.
Where is the Southern Hemisphere?
The Southern Hemisphere includes the majority of South America, one-third of Africa, Australia, Antarctica, and some Asian islands. However, because of the Earth’s seasonal tilt toward and away from the sun, the climates of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres differ.
There are four main geographic regions that make up the Oceania continent:
Australia, Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands, as well as New Zealand, comprise the Australasia region. The term can cover several different but related areas, such as geopolitically, physio geographically, and ecologically.
The political terms are “Australia and New Zealand”, a unified federal republic, and “South Pacific Mandate” for New Zealand only. The Cook Islands and Niue are usually included as well.
More than 600 islands make up the Federation of States of Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean. There are four island states making up Micronesia: Pohnpei, Kosrae, Chuuk, and Yap.
New Caledonia is a French territory in the Pacific Ocean. It is a long and thin piece of land that stretches from Tahiti to New Zealand. There are two inhabited islands in New Caledonia: Grande Terre and Loyalty Islands. The capital of New Caledonia is Nouméa and is home to approximately fifty thousand people.
The continents Polynesia sub-region is made up of more than 1,000 islands dotted throughout the south-eastern and central Pacific Ocean. Polynesian is the name given to the indigenous people who occupy the islands of Polynesia.
The Polynesian people have been seafarers for at least 3,000 years and are believed to have reached the Americas across the Pacific. They originally settled the Cook Islands, Easter Island, Hawaii, New Zealand, Samoa, Tahiti, Tonga and Vanuatu.
Many island cultures include a ceremonial chief; in Hawaii, this is the alii, in other places it is a title given by the monarch. Although most of the islands were put under European control from the 17th century, there are many things they have in common, including language, culture, and traditional beliefs.
Melanesia is another sub-region of the continent, located in the south-west Pacific Ocean. This region stretches from New Guinea in the west to Tonga in the east, as well as the Arafura Sea. It consists of the four independent nations of Fiji, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and Papua New Guinea. The languages of this region share the same origins and are part of the Oceania language group.
The Solomon Islands lie to the north of Papua New Guinea and consist of a group of islands known as the Solomon’s. This stretches from Guadalcanal to Bougainville, with an area of 1,190 km2 (470 sq. mi).
I learn something new every day; did you know geographically, Hawaii is located in Oceania?
What are the Characteristics and Meaning of Oceania Art?
Oceanic art is characterised by patterns and symbols that are derived from nature. This includes strong artistic traditions in sculpture, painting, woodcarving, tattooing, pottery, weaving, ceremonial masks and figures. Tribal art is also a very important aspect of this region’s culture.
The traditional art of the continent draws on a range of influences from Western techniques to traditions from Asia and Europe.
The meaning of Oceania art is one of diversity and uniqueness. There are many different cultural identities in the continent, and as a result, each region has its own art. The art of the Oceanic people is a unique blend of many different cultural identities and traditions.
The art of the continent includes the indigenous art of the Pacific Islands, which includes the cultures of the Polynesian, Melanesian and Micronesian regions. It also includes the art of Australia, New Zealand, and several other countries. Art from the region is a blend of styles of these countries and incorporates a variety of other traditions. Art is universal, but one of the many ways in which cultures express themselves.
Indigenous Oceania Art
The indigenous art of the continent is a collection of artistic traditions from different groups in this part of the world. The term “indigenous” refers to the fact that these artists have been making art with their traditional materials and techniques for centuries.
A number of factors, such as religion, geography, cultural values and history, influences indigenous art. In addition to these factors, there are also external influences such as European colonization and globalization.
The Indigenous people of Australia and New Zealand have a rich culture that includes artwork, mythology, and storytelling. Their art consists primarily of paintings on rock surfaces or bark paper, carvings in wood or stone, drawings in sand or other earth materials. Aboriginal artefacts are culturally significant because they represent a link to the past.
Oceania Art by Sub Region
The continents art and culture can be viewed from various perspectives. Some of the unique cultural influences have influenced the art that is produced in the continent, such as tribal traditions and breath-taking geography found in the region.
The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people art style is not only unique, but also represents the true culture and heritage of the people. Aborigines are believed to have settled in Australia somewhere between 60,000 and 80,000 years ago.
Aboriginal cultures follow a spirituality and belief system known as Animism, which is a concept and a way of relating to the world. As with Native American religions, most, if not all, also functioned under the dictate of animism. The world we live in is alive; a spirit enlivens everything from animals to plants to natural forces. We are therefore equals to nature; we are part of it and we have a moral obligation to respect the animals, plants, and landforms around us.
The oldest evidence of Aboriginal philosophy can be found in rock art, which was painted on rocks with different kinds of ochres. Ochres are native earth coloured by hydrated iron oxide and may range in shade from pale yellow to a deeper shade of red, brown, or violet.
The aboriginal art styles come from different regions and each has its own meaning, and is the oldest unbroken tradition of art in the world.
To paint particular stories, Aboriginal artists must obtain permission. These stories are handed down through generations by ancestor figures within certain ethnic groups and they inherit the rights to them. An Aboriginal artist cannot paint a story that does not belong to their family.
Aboriginal Indigenous Art Style
Depending on the region and the language spoken by the artist, Aboriginal art differs in character and style. Most contemporary Aboriginal art can be identified by the community, which created it.
There is a common belief that dots in Aboriginal art were used to obscure secret information from white men. Aboriginal people became concerned that their sacred knowledge could be seen and understood. By using dots, they were able to conceal the symbols and iconography beneath.
There is much more to the patterns and symbols than just dots, which can mean different things to different people from various parts of the country.
The dot paintings are usually classified as belonging to the Central and Western desert regions.
In the Northern Territory and more specifically in Arnhem Land, cross-hatching (Rarrk) and x-ray paintings are common.
The Wandjina, also written Wanjina and Wondjina and also known as Gulingi, are cloud and rain spirits from Australian Aboriginal mythology that are depicted prominently in rock art in Australia. The Wandjina spirit beings originate in the Kimberley region, specifically in Kulumburu.
Aboriginal Astronomy and Dreamtime Stories
Aboriginal people have their own stories that address the origin of the world, just like the Christians. The Aboriginal people have always had a strong and close connection with the land and other parts of their world for thousands of years.
These stories gave unity and purpose to Aboriginal societies in the past and are important today in maintaining cultural identity, integrity and artistic heritage.
The following stories belong to the traditional Aboriginal owners:
The Emu in the Sky
According to Aboriginal mythology, emus were creator spirits that flew and looked over the land. By looking south at the Southern Cross you may be able to spot an emu if you look up at the stars. The head is represented by the dark cloud between stars. Dust lanes visible comprise the neck, body, and legs across the Milky Way.
Stories of the emu in the sky have been a part of Aboriginal storytelling for thousands of years.
During the Dreaming, a blind man lived with his wife in the bush. Every day he told his wife to go out and hunt for emu eggs for him to eat. Even though his wife tried hard to please her husband, he was always angry at her, telling her that the eggs were too small.
One day while she was out hunting, she came across some very large emu tracks. She thought of her husband and how angry he got, and followed the tracks all the way to the nest. She found a huge emu there, threw stones at it to get at the eggs, but it stood up, ran towards her, and killed her.
The blind man became hungry and worried about his wife. He felt around the camp until he came across a bush with some berries on it and ate some of them. Suddenly he could see. He made some spears and a woomera and set off to find his wife. He followed her tracks and finally saw the huge emu and the body of his wife. He speared the emu and banished its spirit to the Milky Way, where it can still be seen today.
— A story from Papunya, Northern Territory.
The Canoe in Orion
A traditional Yolngu story tells how three brothers of the King-fish (Nulkal) clan went fishing, but all they could catch were king-fish. Because they were in the king-fish clan, traditional lore forbade them to eat these fish, and so they had to throw them back into the water.
Eventually, one of the brothers became so hungry that he decided to break the law, and caught and ate a king-fish.
The Sun-woman (Walu) saw this, and was so angry with him for breaking the law that she created a waterspout that lifted them right up into the sky, where you can still see them.
The three brothers are the three stars across the centre of the canoe, and the Orion nebula is the fish trailing on its line in the water. Thus, this constellation is a reminder that you had better not break the law!
— A story from the Yolngu people of the Northern Territory, known as Djulpan.
The Sun and Moon
In most Aboriginal cultures, the Sun is female while the Moon is male.
“The Sun is a lovely old lady called Walu Yolngu,”
“She gets up every morning and puts on her red ochre, which is why we get the red sunrise, lights a stringy bark tree and carries it across the sky and giving us all light and heat, travels to the west and puts out the stringy bark tree, then travels around back to camp in the east for the morning.”
In all Aboriginal cultures, the Moon is considered a bad person,
In the Yolngu story, he is called Ngalindi and he was big and round and fat like the full moon, and he was lazy.
“His wives and children got so angry because he did nothing to help, so they chopped off bits of him and he went from being a round fat moon and got thinner and thinner which is why you get phases on the Moon.
“Eventually he died and stayed dead for three nights before he came back to life, as a new moon.
“He cursed everyone and said that when he died, he would come back to life, but when others died, they would stay dead.”
— A story from the Yolngu people of the Northern Territory, known as Djulpan.
Prominent art forms include body painting and ornamentation, singing, dancing, and the recitation of myths, tales, and poet.
Masks are extremely rare in Micronesia; the The Nomoi Islands (formerly known as the Mortlock Islands) are traditionally where they are found.
A typical Tapuanu / painted mask is made of breadfruit wood painted with lime and black with soot.
The masks have narrow eye-slits and are tied to the wearer’s head with a plait of coconut fibre. The masks represent an ancestor.
Often, they were used as ornaments in ceremonial houses and boathouses. It was here that members of a secret society performed rituals to appease the god of wind and protect the crops from hurricanes and storms.
Polynesian art forms are characterized by intricately detailed figurative designs, but are most famous for its Easter Island Statues.
What are the Statues on Easter Island Called?
The Moai of Rapa Nui are the most famous and visible symbols of Polynesia’s art. They are about 10 feet tall and weigh about 14 tons. The people of Rapa Nui created these statues, which is the name for Easter Island in Polynesia.
Moai or moʻai are monolithic human figures carved by the Rapa Nui people between 1250 and 1500 on Rapa Nui in eastern Polynesia. The Moai were built to represent their ancestors who had died, so they could be honoured through these statues. Hundreds of moai were transported from Rano Raraku, the main moai quarry, and placed on stone platforms called ahu around the island’s perimeter.
The Rapa Nui people believe that supernatural energy is present on the island, and that it comes from the Moai themselves. The Moai have a spiritual power that can be harnessed by humans to heal themselves or others with spiritual ailments.
The statues of Easter Island are some of the most impressive examples of Polynesia’s art, and they are one of the most mysterious things on the planet. Exactly how were they made? Moreover, how were they moved around? These are questions that have been asked for centuries, and there is still no clear definitive answer.
The artwork of Melanesia is perhaps the most striking in all of Oceania. Most pieces of art are highly decorative and depict exaggerated forms, frequently of a sexual theme. Generally, it is tied to ancestors, hunting, and cannibalism. Typically, they would be used in connection with their spiritual beliefs and rituals, including the creation of elaborate masks.
Fijian Mats and Tapa Cloth
Through the art of weaving, Pacific Islander people have created beautiful and intricate pieces of art. Fijian mats and tapa cloth are some of the most beautiful examples of this work. They have been passed down from generation to generation, with the knowledge being handed down through the family. People who own these pieces of art are able to express themselves through the things they create.
The Jolika Collection of New Guinea Art
The Jolika Collection of New Guinea Art was compiled over four decades by New York philanthropists John and Marcia Friede and promised to the de Young Museum, San Francisco for public display.
The collection consists of thousands of objects and represents hundreds of clans and villages throughout New Guinea.
Containing a multitude of beautifully crafted masks, shields, headdresses, and ceremonial and personal objects, it is considered one of the world’s finest compilations of Papua New Guinea art.
Sepik Art Papua New Guinea
Sepik sculptures are among the most diverse group of artworks found anywhere in the world. This is because, despite being a small geographic area, the Sepik is culturally diverse with many different language groups and art styles.
How Did the Market for Oceania Art Develop in the West?
As explorers, traders, and missionaries returned to Europe with ethnographic artefacts at the end of the 18th century, the market for the continents art emerged. (Ethnographic refers to the systematic study of individual cultures within anthropology).
Over time, these artefacts have been collected and displayed as ‘curiosities’ throughout Europe and have been acquired by museums and private collectors.
By the twentieth century, art of the southern hemisphere countries of Oceania has made its way to the West, having a profound impact on contemporary artists.
Art dealers and avant-garde artists including Matisse, Picasso, and André Derain started collecting ethnographic objects. The influence on these artists resulted in the style known as Primitivism.
Famous Oceania Artists
The continent is home to painters, tattooists, poets, and storytellers of various styles who are united by their heritage.
From my small art book collection, `Tribal Tattoo Design by Maarten Hesselt Van Dinter` has always stood out for me. Even though I do not have any tattoos, I was immediately drawn to it when I first saw it at the Elliott Bay Book Company.
Tattoo artists of any repute will find this book invaluable. There is an abundance of tattoo designs in this book from a wide range of tribes that have strength and authenticity beyond question.
Cultural identity is the core of any society, and it is infused into the artwork produced. Here we explore some of the continents artists that use their culture as a way to stand out from others and celebrate their custom.
Famous Australian Aboriginal Painters
Albert Namatjira (born Elea Namatjira; 28 July 1902 – 8 August 1959) was an Arrernte watercolour landscape artist from the MacDonnell Ranges in Central Australia.
Namatjira is widely considered one of the greatest and most influential Aboriginal watercolour painters. He was the first Aboriginal artist to receive widespread popularity from an Australian audience.
His watercolour paintings were colourful and depicted the Australian desert landscape, which was a departure from the traditional medium of ochre or indigenous ‘dot style’ artworks.
The Arrernte are expected to share everything they own, and as Namatjira’s income grew, so did his extended family. At one time, he was singlehandedly providing for over 600 people with financial support. Despite the fact that he was held as one of the greatest artists in Australia, Namatjira was living in poverty.
Due to being cheated in land dealings and some unfortunate decisions made against him, he later applied to become an Australian citizen. Still an Aboriginal, but now as an Australian citizen, he could vote, own land, build a house and buy alcohol.
At the time of his death, Namatjira had created over two thousand works. He is one of the best Australian artists and a pioneer in Aboriginal rights.
Australian artists are driven by a deep sense of connection to this country’s natural environment. It inspires them to create artwork that captures the beauty of this land, which is often seen through the lens of Indigenous culture.
The world’s sixth-largest country has a vibrant and diverse art scene. It is a great place to be an artist, but it is also an amazing place to be a fan of art. Australian artists are some of the most diverse in the world.
Australian artists are driven by a deep sense of connection to this country’s natural environment. It inspires them to create artwork that captures the beauty of this land, which is often seen through the lens of Indigenous culture, whilst reflecting their personal lives and influences.
Mark Waller’s work is filled with beautiful scenes of nature and the wonders of the universe. My discovery was due to a random online search and contact with his ever-helpful assistant Frankie.
Mark experienced a profound spiritual awakening, following the discovery of brain and lung cancer. Faced with death, he was surprised to discover that it was possible to experience joy and light. He has written about his experiences in hospital and on chemotherapy wards, these accounts are in fact profound celebrations of life despite the seriousness of his situation.
I really encourage you to check out his work and his unique perspective on life has really captivated me. Mark and I are working on a little project – which has no timeline, but we will let you know when it is done.
Mary Jewett Pritchard died on June 6, 1992 at the age of 86. She was an American Samoan textile artist. As well as reviving the craft of siapo, Pritchard is credited with bringing back tapa, the Samoan art of pounding the bark of plants to make cloth.
Su’a Sulu’ape Paulo II was a master Oceania tattoo artist (tufuga ta tatau) born in Matafa’a near Lefaga, Samoa. Being born into one of the country’s most prominent families of tattoo artists, he followed a guild-like system of masters and apprentices.
During the late 20th and early 21st centuries, tufuga ta tatau were known for their culturally distinct and highly skilled work. According to some, the word tattoo is derived from the Samoan ‘tatau‘.
Samoan mythology claims that two sisters, Tilafaiga and Taema, who brought the tools and knowledge for tattooing, introduced tattooing to Samoa. Samoan male tatau are called pe’a and female ones are called malu.
Momoe Malietoa Von Reiche is a Samoan poet, artist, sculptor, and photographer.
Characteristics of Oceania Architecture
The continents architecture varies according to the diversity of geographical and physical condition’s location. Buildings are often designed to be temporary, and to respond to the constantly shifting environment. Architecture found in islands with tropical climates are designed to handle heavy rain and humidity with the use of thatched roofs, thatched walls, and a raised floor. Monolithic stone construction is used in islands with more temperate climates.
Architecture in the region had reached a settled state by the 16th century and remained conservative for two more centuries. However, contact with Europeans beginning in the 18th century stimulated change. However, the designs in architecture included the incorporation of fake antiquities and the adaptation of traditional forms to fanciful European trends.
One of the most iconic architectural features of the island is the ‘fale’, which is a cone-shaped building with a roof of thatched palm fronds and a stained, clay or coral-slab floor. This traditional Samoan house, “fale tele”, is raised on posts with a platform on top. It is larger than a typical beach “fale” and is used as a meetinghouse or guesthouse.
A great deal of damage was done to islanders during the Second World War. In the wake of the fighting and the long-term effects of introducing modern technology, machines, and artefacts of western culture, traditional isolated island ways of life were transformed forever with newfound material culture.
Because of the absence of war reparations and the destruction of the plantations, formerly the mainstay of the economy, reconstruction was slow. As labourers with the Allies, Solomon Islanders gained a new appreciation for the importance of economic organisation and trade as a means of progress.
After World War II, the ‘Maasina Ruru’ movement implemented some of these ideas to gain independence for the Solomon Islands. ‘Maasina Ruru’ is a word from the ‘Are’are language meaning the Rule of ‘relationship of siblings together’. This is often mistranslated to ‘Marching Rule’, ‘Marxist Rule’, or ‘Rule of Brotherhood’.
Just remember, the sun is in a different place in the Northern and Southern hemispheres! In the north, to get the most out of the sun, orient your windows to face south. Whereas, in the south, you will want to orient your home to face north to take advantage of the passive or active solar heating.
Did you know that the direction water drains in a sink could depend on which hemisphere you are in? In the Northern hemisphere, water drains clockwise. In the Southern hemisphere, water drains counter clockwise. On the equator, water goes straight down.
Oceanic music is characterized by its ethereal and otherworldly sound. It often features complex rhythms and melodies, and is often used to convey the beauty and power of the ocean.
The continents music is a category of music that is native to Polynesia, Micronesia and parts of Melanesia. Primarily string instruments, including the guitar, ukulele, a surf guitar, and the slit drum, make it. In Oceanic music, there is an emphasis on melody.
Polynesian music is best known for pop and rock songs with lyrics in the English language, whereas Micronesian music is known for a variety of styles, including the genre of reggae. The traditional Polynesian music is for the most part notated, unlike the traditional music of other regions.
Oceanic music is a type of music that originated on the islands of the region. The word is used to define music created by Pacific Islanders and has been used to describe Polynesian, Māori, and Hawaiian music.
The term is also applied to the music of other regions and peoples with origins in the continent, including the music of Micronesia, Melanesia, and Australia. A strong, steady, and regular pulse, making the sounds of the regions musical instruments distinct, generally characterizes the rhythm of the music.
Australian indigenous music is composed of the music of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Throughout the millennia of their individual and collective histories, it has intertwined with their cultural and ceremonial observances.
Indigenous Australians have managed to combine Western musical styles with traditional instruments ever since the Europeans first colonized Australia at the start of the 18th century.
Some of the traditional instruments that Australia is famous for are the Didgeridoo, Clapsticks, Gum Leaf, Bullroarer and Rasp. Additionally, non-Indigenous artists have adapted, used, and sampled Indigenous Australian sounds and instruments in their own works. There have been many Indigenous Australian artists who have performed in contemporary musical genres such as rock and roll, country, rap, hip-hop, and reggae.
The music of Micronesia is as diverse as the islands themselves, a mix of traditional and modern styles, with influences from Polynesia, Philippines, Japan, and the United States. It is typically percussion-based, with a strong rhythm section and featuring unique instruments like the jaw harp and the bamboo flute.
Polynesian music is based on a combination of vocal and instrumental music. It often includes drums, rattles, and flutes. Polynesian music is characterized by the use of unique instruments, including the ukulele, the steel guitar, and the conch shell.
Melanesian music is typically characterised by the use of percussion instruments, such as drums and clapping sticks, as well as by the use of a single stringed instrument, the fiddle or the ukulele.
The music of Melanesia is a mix of traditional and modern styles, and is often based around vocals and percussion.
Dance is a form of art that is performed by people. It has been around for centuries and it helps to connect their people with their ancestral past and create a deep sense of culture.
Dance is a form of art that is performed by people. It has been around for centuries and it helps to connect their people with the natural world. There are many different forms of dance, but one of the most popular forms of dance is oceanic dance. Oceanic Dance originated in Hawaii and it has come to many other cultures, like Japan.
Oceanic Dance is a type of dance that was created in Hawaii by the Polynesian people. It was once used as an important part of religious ceremonies and rituals, but now it can be seen at various events around the world.
Oceania Food & Drink
A mix of islands characterizes the continent, so seafood plays a significant role in the diet, while sweet potato, taro, and yam are among the chief carbohydrates. In the tropics of Oceania, coconut, as well as its derivative products, such as coconut milk, coconut oil, and coconut sugar, are major ingredients.
The Earth Oven is one of the continents most distinctive cooking styles, in which food is laid on hot rocks and buried in earth. Originating in Papua New Guinea, the technique was later exported by Austronesian settlers.
Furthermore, how can I overlook the many excellent southern hemisphere wines from the region? There is no shortage of delicious wines to choose from, thanks to the popularity of New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc and Australian Shiraz.
The traditional dress of many Oceanic cultures is often the most visible part of their culture.
In the past, clothing was often made from natural materials like bark cloth, tapa, and pandanus leaves, feathers, and the skins of animals like snakes, fish, and turtles, whereas like anywhere else it is made from synthetic materials.
One of the most well known features used in traditional costumes is the use of feather work and other forms of vegetal matter.
The way that people dress, their cultural identity, and their diets can influence the way they make art. Across the southern hemisphere culture, there are many different ways of dressing, often heavily influenced by environment and diet. For example, Māori’s ate a lot of seafood and plants that grew on the ground. Their clothing was made out of plant fibre and was a lot looser than is seen in other cultures. Their culture and art reflect the way their society was completely based around the sea.
The film industry in the region is thriving and is responsible for some of the most popular movies around the world. For example, New Zealand’s generous tax breaks for The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit trilogies (2001-2003 and 2012-2014, respectively) and The World’s Fastest Indian (2005) have resulted in these films being produced.
New Zealand has become a major hotspot for film productions and in turn has helped tourism. The country offers beautiful scenery with wide variety of locations, as well as the competitive benefits, which means productions can be made at a much lower cost.
Conclusion: A Diverse Continent of Islands
I hope you enjoyed this blog post on the ways in which cultural identity has influenced Oceania art. The continents art is a popular form of artwork that is widely studied and appreciated by many people.
As an art form, it has roots that can be traced to the spiritual beliefs of the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Islands and Australia. Oceania art can be identified by its unique designs and patterns which are often based on animals, flowers, and plants.
The body of artistic and religious work created by the inhabitants of Oceania, or their descendants, is diverse, with different form and subject matter. There is also a diversity in style, and the media on which it is created, that makes it so intriguing with its uniquely different perspectives.
Perhaps some of these insights might even help you in your future art endeavours. If you would like to learn more about how cultural identity affects other regions of the world, you should check out the main article on this topic, and other regions of the world by clicking on the links below:
- 10 ways cultural identity has influenced African Art
- 10 ways cultural identity has influenced Asian Art
- 10 ways cultural identity has influenced Caribbean Art
- 10 ways cultural identity has influenced European Art
- 10 ways cultural identity has influenced North America’s Art
- 10 ways cultural identity has influenced South America’s Art
- Famous Irish Art and Cultural Identity
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Thank you for reading.
`Tribal Tattoo Design by Maarten Hesselt Van Dinter`
Publisher: The Pepin Press (January 1 2000)
Paperback: 360 pages ISBN-10: 9054960736
Adrian Reynolds ‘Ren’ is a contemporary Artist/Designer based in Dublin, Ireland. His paintings are a response to the world that surrounds us. A world that is changing faster than ever before. His work is an exploration of colour, form and texture, placing his work at the intersection between abstraction and representation. His work has been featured in Ireland, the UK and the US.